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Full text of "Durable Douglas fir, America's permanent lumber supply / by Bror L. Grondal."

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Dou glas F ir 

oAmerica's Permanent 
Lumber Supply 



Important West Coast Woods — DOUGLAS FIR - WESTCOAST HEMLOCK - WESTERN RED CEDAR • SITKA SPRUCE 
WEST COAST LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION BUREAU - SEATTLE, U.S.A. 



A short time ago Douglas Fir was hardly known on 
Jl\. the Atlantic Seaboard except by engineers who 
used it for beams and timbers in docks, wharfs and 
buildings where structural strength was the first re- 
quirement. In 1919 it began to appear there for the 
first time for home building and general use. 

The total shipments from the West Coast mills to 
the Atlantic Coast in 1920 were slightly in excess of 50 
million board feet. Without any concentrated effort 
towards sales or advertising, this demand climbed to 
1700 million board feet in 1925 — an increase in this 
territory alone of more than 3400 per cent in five years. 

WHiatever your building plans, you will find well 
manufactured Douglas Fir in practically everj^ lumber 
market in the United States. 

Ask your architect, engineer or lumber 
dealer about Douglas Fir-~or write to the 



WEST COAST LUMBER TRADE 
EXTENSION BUREAU 

5560-62 Stuart Building 
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 



I5 



ura 



ouQlas rir 



AMERICA'S PERMANENT 
LUMBER SUPPLY 



DCHABLE DOUGLAS FIR 

-yimerua s Permanent lumber Supply 

PVise forest [>r?Ttcv.tiou dot^s not w^^m\u%^ w ith- 
(Irawal i^i foiest resources, whetlu^r of wood, 
water ( )r ^rass, ti;ou4 4;uu.tribiutiitW. tht:i^',:fuli,{>iiare 
to tUt^iwt;ljua^ Mint H«.ir^w\.wuLv)Hrt net j.^^ 
knVp^,tUt;as,Wfft|iQ^iC^t,JA4#';;,ft^icJi,ii>,9r^,,Q^i;),-aiii 

is not ail end of itself: it is a means to ineiease 
C« •''^'•Ui^a='s\isk^nTli^^H^(Hai'ces {sfmx\^^^i{^''U^SM'' ^'" 

^J n.ak* i.fs J<( 1, jiiij)rrssj(ni (hi one , the l)ra\vn trunk of the DoiMrhi ' 

; mdusmes.wlucli del lyid upon tliem. 

irsT liM\eR'rs into the Fat'itic Ibwers over acre after a< 

()rtnw( are so d^iise that sunJight rareiy piri- 

tirnc .»r Winthrop, nionaieii (;!' the These were the forests at which 

gions in Washington and Winthrop marveled. Forests at which 

()regc»ri. Thrusting a green crown of the world marvels as the story of 



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DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 

America s Perm a nen t J^mber Supply 

®y Prof. Bror L. Grondal, M. Sc. F, 

College of Forest ry.Univers ity oj ll^ashington 



"... the trail took us speedily into a forest temple. Long 
years of labor by artists the most unconseious of their skill 
had been given to modeling these eohimnar firs. Unlike the 
pillars of luunan architetture, chipped antl chiseled in bus- 
tling, dusty quarries and lioisted to their site by sweat of 
brow and creak of pulley, these rose to fairest proportion by 
the life that was in them, and blossomed into foliated capitals 
three hundred feet overhead." — **Canoe and Saddle," by 
Theodore H'inthrop, 185S, 



SO did Douglas Fir, 73 years ago, 
make its deep impression on one 
of the first travelers into the Pacific 
Xorthwest. 

It remains today, as it was in the 
time of Winthrop, monarch of the 
forest regions in Washington and 
Oregon. Thrusting a green crown of 



foliage hundreds of feet into the air, 
the brown trunk of the Douglas Fir 
towers over acre after acre. Stands 
are so dense that sunlight rarely pen- 
etrates to the green forest floor. 

These were the forests at which 
Winthrop marveled. Forests at which 
the world marvels as the storv of 




/'j.v (Jnd 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR. 







For twenty - five years or 
more there hm been a con- 
certed effort to create an 
impression that the rner- 
ehantable lumber supply of 
the United States teas on the 
vertje of disappearance. As 
a fact there is a larger stand 
of high grade merchantable 
timber between the Rocky 
Mountains and Pacific Ocean 
today than there ever was in 
the states of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
Michigan and Minnesota. 

On the slopes of the Cas- 
cades alone, reaching to the 
shores of the blue Pacific, 
are 26 million acres of tow- 
ering trees — Douglas Fir, 
Sitka Spruce, West Coast 
Hemlock, Western Red 
Cedar. Mighty trees, all of 
them, but the king of the 
forest is Douglas Fir, com- 
prising seventy per cent of 
the West Coast forest stand. 
One Douglas Fir tree, here, 
sometimes produces more 
lumber than five acres of 
trees in other forest districts. 

Nowhere in America has 
Nature provided such abun- 
dant means for reforestation 
as in the cool green depths 
of the Douglas Fir region. 
Climatic conditions, fertility 
of soil, abundant moisture — 
all are ideal for new forest 
growth. Stored in the moist 
duff of the forest floor are 
seeds without number wait- 
ing for the sunlight which 
can only reach the seedlings 
as the age-ripe timber is cut. 
For, .my foresters, "Witho^it 
logging, there can be no sil- 
viculture, and without silvi- 
culture, no forestry." 

It is estimated that the 
growth in new forests on cut- 
over land alone represents 
more than S billion feet an- 
tnutlly. With present day f re 
protection and modern meth- 
ods of lumbering and forest- 
ry, it is rightly estimated 
that (he West Coast forests 
will supply the lumber wants 
of the X (ft ion for all tittif 



Young grcncth of Duuglaa Fir 
on land cut over 25 years be- 
fore, the trees growing SO to 
JfO feet high. It is estimated 
that the annual new forest 
growth on cut over land alone 
in the West Coast forest regions 
is S billion feet per year. 



Page Tzio 



Douglas Fir is being told today. You 
will find them here on the slopes from 
Cascade mountain heights to Pacific 
ocean beaches. 

Winthrop could not classify the 
new tree which he described. He 
called it ''fir" for want of a better 
name. Other early voyagers found 
the same difficulty. The great tree 
had leaves like yew, bark of a kind 
which had never been seen before, 
wood that was like pine, but with far 
less resin and not excessively heavy, 
but tough and strong like spruce, and 
beautiful and easy to w^ork. And all 
these characteristics were combined 
with an astonishing durability — the 
wood for the American home. 



America s Permanent Lumber Supply 

How D()Ug;las Fir 
was named 

For more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury this newly discovered tree 
remained without a distinctive name. 
It was not until 1820, when the Royal 
Horticultural Society sent David 
Douglas, a Scotch botanist, to the 
Oregon country to study this tree 
that Douglas Fir was given its own 
botanically distinctive generic name. 
For it is not pine, spruce and by no 
means fir. It stands alone and unique 
among commercial woods. There- 
fore, the name "Douglas Fir" has 
come to be regarded as descriptive of 
this single species. 

Xearlv one-third of all the stand- 



^'Douglas Fir is the strongest 
resinous wood, pound for 
pound, that has ever been test- 
ed. It seems possible that this 
extra strength is due in part to 
the spiral reinforcements which 
are found in the cells, and 
7chich are pictured in the pho- 
tomicrograph at the right. Yew 
is the only other American soft- 
wood having similar reinforc- 
ing." — Prof. Bror L. Grondal, 
M. Sc. F., College of Forestry, 
Cniversifi/ of JVashingtoji. 



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DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 




A unique and beautiful treat- 
ment fur vertical grain Douglas 
Fir finish has been developed 
by a prominent architect. The 
u^ood is covered icith a rubber 
stencil, the exposed porticms 
being subjected to a sandblast 
u'hich etches out the softer 
portion of the annual rings. 
Jllien the stencil is removed 
the summerwood remains out- 
lining the figures and providing 
a delicacy of treatment that is 
almost beyond belief. The sten- 
cil for a pilaster panel may be 
a Renaissance scroll; in a large 
panel it may be a complete pic- 
ture, l^his finish lends itself 
li^miderfully to the designs that 
characterize a stained glass 
loindow, or to the simple 
massed poster type of treat- 
ment. It may be colored and 
will make enduring tapestry 
effects. 



ing timber in the United States at 
the present time is found in the 
Douglas Fir region. Here a new and 
distinctive type of forestry is re- 
quired. Elsewhere, forestn^ is ex- 
pensive; cut-over areas must either 
be reforested by leaving seed trees. 
lalK)riously planting seedlings, or by 
removing trees only when they reach 
a certain size. 

Pap€ Four 



Vnluntccr ^'rnicth 
aidsforestry 

13 ut in this, the ^n'catest forest 
LJ in Aineriea. foresters prescribe 
other methods. Douglas Fir nmst be 
cut clean; niust be harvested like 
wheat. The trees in a Douglas Fir 
forest are typically even-aged and all 
nmst l>e removed to make nxim for 
the new growth. After logging. 






something occurs that puzzled forest- 
ers for decades. Thousands upon 
thousands of seedhngs — volunteers 
— appear until there is once again a 
dense forest. 

To foresters these seedlings are as 
great cause for rejoicing as was the 
annual overflow of the Nile to the 
ancient Egyptians — and once their 
origin was just as deeply shrouded in 
mystery. 

Today foresters know that young 
growth comes chiefly from seed stored 
up in the moist duff" of the forest 
floor, in some cases lying dormant for 
several years, awaiting only sunlight 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 

to warm the ground and hasten ger- 
mination. 

In this positive manner a Douglas 
Fir forest with Nature's aid reestab- 
lishes itself. Careful protection of 
the young seedlings from ground 
fires is all that is necessary to insure 
continued crops of timber. Our na- 
tional government, the several states, 
and associations of timber owners are 
all cooperating in the protection of 
growing forests. 

Thus, man and Nature, uniting 
forces, are making possible a perma- 
nent supply of America's most valu- 
able softwood — Douglas Fir. 




A guest nf this hotel. The Kmerson, Ilaqu'mm. 
Washington, 7cas astonished to learn that 
"what appeared from a distance to be ejc pen- 



sive tnpestrif. icas Douglas Fir vertical grain 
finish, stenciled and treated as described and 
illustrated on the preceding page. 



Fa> 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR. 




Above: ''Japanese squares" on 
the dock ready to be shipped. 

Below: Forty-eight cars of 
''Japanese squares" en route to 
the ocean docks. 

Rapid growth insures 
quick crops 

Douglas Fir groAvs with remark- 
able vigor. Forests that are 
only twenty-five years old usually 
contain trees that are forty feet high 
and therefore, a moderate increase in 
diameter produces a great increase in 
total volume. The growing of a new 
crop of Douglas Fir does not call for 
a century-long wait. In less than 
fifty years a second growth Douglas 
Fir forest will produce 30.000 hoanl 
feet to the acre, a far heavier stand 
than is common in virgin forests in 
other sections of the United States. 
When the last tree of the original 

Page Siz 



The Japanese buy Douglas Fir 
in huge squares, which arc cut 
from the central portion of the 
log. In Japan, these squares 
are carefully, laboriously sazced 
with thin-bladed sazcs, often by 
hand, into the finest grades of 
f ra m ing I u m ber, so m e t i m r s 
right on iiie ground zchcrr a 
building is under const rntt ion . 

stand of Douglas Vw has been cut 
some 100 years hence, logging opera- 
tions will go (H\ without a pause. Al- 
ready the small j)rop(»rtion of cut- 
over and naturally reforested land 
alone in the Douglas Fir region is 
adding enough to the future lumber 



supply to build 200,000 American 
homes every year. The virgin stands, 
in which Douglas Fir is the dominant 
tree, today contain more than 700 
billion board feet! 

Doug-las Fir for your home 

Just what is it about Douglas Fir 
that makes it such a superior ma- 
terial for home buildings? Why is a 
Douglas Fir home so much more in- 
teresting? 

These are questions that can, of 
course, be answered in part by telling 
of the adaptability, strength and dur- 
ability of Douglas Fir; how the heat 
of summer and cold of winter are 
moderated by this unusual wood ; and 
that attractive designs are available. 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 

Today in architectural magazines 
many of the newer houses shown are 
almost exact replicas of Colonial 
homes, built 200 years ago. Design- 
ers of that time followed the dictates 
of good design and common sense in 
their home planning. Just as the plan 
of the house was all important in 
those days, so it is today. Douglas 
Fir is easily adaptable to this digni- 
fied style of architecture and to any 
type of interesting combination. 

In fact, good architecture is essen- 
tial in planning the Douglas Fir 
home, for such buildings will last so 
long that care must be taken not to 
build them in such fashion that they 
will become old fashioned before they 
M^ear out. Fine architecture is fast 




A large Douglas Fir log, not by any means 
the largest, has been opened up to produce 
"wide cants of clear lumber without a blemish. 



Note the very narrow .sapicoad and unusualli/ 
large percentage of heartivood, xchich is ma- 
ture wood, dependable and enduring. 



Paoe Seven 



1 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR.. 

becoming an important feature in 
American conmiunities of every size 
and, by using Douglas Fir, such 
architecture may be carried out at a 
reasonable cost. 

Climatic conditions often dictate 
the type of homes which must be 
built. Douglas Fir lends itself to any 
style of treatment and buildings can 
be constructed to withstand the icy 
blasts of winter as well as the ex- 
treme heat of summer. 

In planning the house, space econ- 
omy can be effected through the use 
of Douglas Fir. Kxcessively thick 
walls and partitions are not demand- 
ed. Plumbing fixtures can be easily 
installed and due to the high heat in- 
sulating efficiency of Douglas Fir, 
the annoyance of frozen pipes can be 
almost entirely avoided. 

Doors of Douglas Fir in attractive 
designs and built in such a manner 
that they will not warp, shrink, swell, 
or stick can be instalkd at minimum 




I) on (/I as Fir /.v adaptable to 
yaur individual designs. No 
limitations are imposed upon 
the architect or builder when 
Douglas Fir is used. 




7V//.S ixauitiid \coiHl hamr lam fhr Cold Mrdal nf fhr Kansas Citif Arch, 
trrtinal Lrarinr. Clarnnr E. Shrpard. trrhifrct. liuUd ifour htnnv \,f icood. 



Page Eight 



America s Permanent Lumber Supply 



Douglas Fir is the kind of zvood 
that stays in place under try- 
ing conditions and because it is 
mostly all hearticood, weathers 
evenly without checking, split- 
ting or warping. It takes paint 
and holds it. These inherent 
qualities are insuranrr agaiHsf 
depreciation. 




Fromi the sturdiest framing to 
the delicate beauty and fine 
texture of interior trim, Doug- 
las Fir answers every purpose 
adequately. 



Douglas Fir is to- 
day being used for 
home building at 
framing, rafters, 
joists, sills, floor- 
ing, siding, window 
frames, sash and in- 
terior trim. 



Fine h o m e s o f 
Douglas Fir that 
are so much ad- 
mired today will re- 
main as examples of 
beautiful architec- 
ture for succeeding 
generati&ns. 



Page Svne 



1 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR.. 

cost. Window frames and sash resist 
the action of the elements and are 
just as available for the modest 
homes as for the costly hotel. 

Built-in furniture of edge grain 
Douglas Fir, combined with Douglas 
Fir plywood panels, is easily in- 
stalled while the house is under con- 
struction and adds greatly to its 



For ejcterior ejcpo- 
sures such as sleep- 
ing porches, porch 
floors, window 
frames, sash and 
doors, pergolas, gar- 
den furniture, steps, 
Douglas Fir is un- 
usually serviceable 
and durable. Its 
large per cent of 
all-heart wood and 
practically no sap 
renders it resistant 
to weather in ex- 
posed places and in 
contact with soil. 




value and beauty. Woodwork of 
kitchens and bathrooms can be ena- 
meled in white, cream, or delicate col- 
ors, for Douglas Fir holds enamel 
tenaciously. The surface hardness in- 
sures long service and the finish is 
easily cleaned. 

The economy of Douglas Fir in 
home construction is very marked. 
Grades are uniform and the quality 
of the lumber is at once apparent to 
careful builders. Trim from joists 
and studdings can be used for fire 
stops at no additional expense. 

However, the irresistible appeal of 
Douglas Fir has a deeper and more 
basic foundation than a mere recital 
of its qualities. Douglas Fir brings 
into the home that touch of sunshine 
that has made its cells — the life and 
beauty of the growing tree, the fresh- 
ness of the western forest, the com- 
fort of a home made of a superior 
wood. 

A lasting home — one which will 




Americas Permanent Lumber Suppbf 



Douglas Fir is su- 
preme as framing 
lumber — it is light, 
stiff, strong and 
durable, ifet easif to 
saic. There is Utile 
or no tendency to 
ticist or warp and 
because of its close 
texture holds nails 
well, even when 
driven in the green 
lumber. 





endure — in which the family will 
have increasing pride as the years go 
by! Such a home may be built of 
Douglas Fir for you and yours! 

Doug-las Fir ideal for interiors 

Wherever Douglas Fir has been 
sold, it has at once become the 
standard wood in the finest homes. In 
wide, vertical grain it provides mate- 
rial which is quiet and unobtrusive, 
taking stain evenly and giving as 
beautiful a texture as many expen- 
sive hardwoods. As a base for paint 



Douglas Fir is 
adaptable to every 
architectural design 
in home building. It 
is essentially an all- 
purpose wood for 
general house con- 
struction. 



Douglas Fir has 
great strength, yet 
because of its fine 
grain and texture is 
easy to work. It is 
comparatively low 
in cost and has no 
superior for frame- 
work. 



and enamel, it is highly satisfactory, 
and is extremely durable for either 
interior or exterior work. 

Flat grain Douglas Fir presents a 
very striking and beautiful figure 
and is used in great quantities for 
paneling. Very large and wide three- 
ply panels, cut on rotary lathes and 
bonded together with water-resistant 
cement, are rapidly growing in pop- 
ularity — and no equivalent material 
can be produced from any other soft- 
wood. Panels of this kind, when 



Pape Eleven 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR. 



Courtesy, Schack, 
Voung & Myers, 
Arrhiterfs, Senttle. 




In home building, Douglas Fir 
finds a fitting place. The clear 
grades, always furnished for 
interior finish, are uniform in 
color and texture and of great 
beauty of grain. When cut for 
molding, casing and base, the 
mitred corners fit tightly and 
stay put. 

stained in driftwood gray and bor- 
dered with vertical grain rails and 
stiles, resemble handsome pictures in 
frames to emphasize their beauty. 

Soft grays or pale greens are 
favorite tones in the treatment of 
Douglas Fir, but such other colors as 
the deep red of mahogany, the dark 
brown of walnut and the lighter 
browns and tans of oak are also poj>- 
ular. When finishing in light tones, 
to bring out the full beauty of the 
wood an acid stain, rather than an oil 
stain, should be used. 

One architect has deve]()j>ed a 
uni(jue and beautiful treatment for 
vertical grain Douglas Fir finish. 
The wood is covered with a rul)ber 
stencil, the exposed portions being 

Paae Titehe 



sul)jected to a sandblast which etches 
out the softer portion of the annual 
rings. When the stencil is removed 
the summerwood remains as a deli- 
cate hatchure, outlining the figures 
and providing a delicacy of treat- 
ment that is ahnost beyond belief. 

The stencil for a pilaster panel 
may be a Renaissance scroll; in a 
large panel it may be a complete pic- 
ture. 'I'he finish lends itself wonder- 
fullx to tlie designs that characterize 
a stained glass window, or to the 
simple massed poster type of treat- 
ment. It may be colored and will 
make enduring tapestry effects. 

Douglas Fir flooring is produced 
in uniform grades, and when edge 
grained or "rift sawed" is uniform in 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 



texture, pleasing in color, and wear 
resisting. For floors that are exposed 
to the weather, as on porches, the 
superiority of Douglas Fir flooring 
is readily apparent wherever it has 
been introduced. When stained, var- 
nished, and waxed, it presents a very 
pleasing effect. Joints remain tight 
and snug, and the floor level and 
true, for Douglas Fir has little ten- 
dency to warp. 

The durability and staying qual- 
ities of Douglas Fir have made this 
wood very popular for siding and 
rustic. It remains in place without 
twisting and pulling nails, and pro- 



vides a surface upon which paints 
will adhere without blistering and 
peeling. In shop grades it ofters 
material for sash and frames that is 
as dural)le as white pine with the 
added strength and stift'ness that is 
an inherent quality of Douglas Fir. 
The clear grades of Douglas Fir 
are used on the Pacific Coast almost to 
the exclusion of other species. They 
have not gone into distant markets to 
the same extent as have the dimension 
and timber grades, but wherever they 
have been used they have met with 
instant favor, and their use in these 
markets is rapidly developing. 




In the lobbi^ of the Regents' 
Room at the Uniz^ersitif of 
Washington the beautiful pan- 
els and xcainscoting are of 
Douglas Fir acid stained, 
rubbed and tcaj:ed. This stifle 
of treatment is growing in pop- 
idariiy — for it is at once beau- 
tiful and distinctive. 



Striking effects were 
achieved with Doug- 
las Fir in building 
the beautiful new 
Alfred //. Anderson 
memorial building 
of the College of 
Forestry at the Uni- 
versity of Washing- 
ton. Here is shozcn 
the magnificent as- 
sembly hall, with 
Douglas Fir arches. 



Page Thirteen 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 




An unusual Douglas Fir ex- 
terior suggestive of the chalet 

The dignity and simplicity of 
this office interior is made pos- 
sible by the use of vertical 
grain trim and panels, finished 
in hand-rubbed gray, varnished 
and waxed. Douglas Fir is 
easily worked, and is remark- 
ably free from warping, split 
ting and shrinking, and is hard 
enough to withstand unusual 
wear. 



I>njfrlas Fir is unique 
(im<mff woods 

I'^Im scientific name of Douglas 
Fir, Picudotsuga iojrifolia, rec- 
o^izes the fact that the leaves are 
like those of Yew. In the wckkI an- 
other startling resemhlance manifests 
itself. Douglas Fir and Vew are the 
only American MoftxcoodM in which 
the inner xcalh of the celh are rein- 
forced with minute, thread-like 
spirals: { See page 3. ) 

It it of course manifestly impos- 
fible to measure accurately the extent 



to whidi the unusual streu^ril, of 
Douglas Fir depends upon the [)res- 
ence of these spirals. The fact doi s 
remain, however, that Douglas Fir is 
stronger, pound for pound, tlian any 
otl)er resinous wckxI. This means 
much to the huilder. 'i'hese sjiiral re- 
inforcements are more numerous than 
in Yew.and uncjuestionahly strengtii 
en the cells without increasing the ten- 
dency of the wood to swell and con- 
tract when moisture isahsorl>ed. They 
alsfimake it possihle to identify Doug- 
las Fir even under low magmfications. 



Resin is rather sparingly distrib- 
uted in Douglas Fir. The minute so- 
called "resin ducts'' are usually con- 
fined to the harder layer of the an- 
nual ring, or the "summer wood/' 
while still smaller resin passages are 
found in some of the pith rays. 
Douglas Fir can be readily distin- 
guished from the pines by means of 
this characteristic, for in the latter 
the resin ducts are larger and are 
abundantly scattered throughout the 
annual ring in both the summer wood 
and the spring wood. The non-dur- 
able firs, which belong to an entirely 
different group of trees, contain no 
resin ducts, and must not be confused 
with Douglas Fir. Common usage — 
there being no adequate word to de- 
scribe this wood — has simply appro- 
priated the word "fir" to coin the 
name of Douglas Fir. 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 

Why it is DURABLE 

Doug-las Fir 

A complete explanation for the 
durability of Douglas Fir has 
never been advanced. Research indi- 
cates that the bordered pits of each 
cell are usually sealed up as the sap- 
wood of the tree gradually changes 
into decay - resisting heartwood 
through the infiltration of mineral 
matter. Each cell therefore offers 
individual resistance to the penetra- 
tion of decay-producing organisms, 
and it may be that this accounts for 
the long life that Douglas Fir exhib- 
its under adverse conditions. The 
durabihty of Douglas Fir often 
equals that of White Oak, the king 
of hardwoods. 

Doughis Fir, like White Oak, of- 
fers considerable resistance to the 
penetration of liquids, and for this 




Douglas Fir panels and trim were chosen as 
a fitting background for art displays in the 
gallery of the Omaha Society of Fine Arts. 



The Tcoodwork is stained a soft grey-broum 
and waxed, a finish which brings out the 
natural satin figured pattern of Douglas Fir. 



Page Fifteen 



Douglas Fir produces the largest 
commercial timbers in existence. 
For example, timbers 1^ inches bij 
18 inches by 15G feet 6 inches and 
54 inches by 54 inches by 74 feet 
have been cut. 



DURABLE 

Americans Perm 



3 



L'GLAS 




Dttufflas Fir timbert remain 

^tratffht and true even when 

laced in potition in a green 



(Jut in the JJffUfflai Fi 
photoffrapher who main 
found he could not hrtn 
the true tize of the iJou 
used two negatives andl 
which compares the mi* 
office buildingt. 



2- ^^^ /, 

.' fo 






"^9i.,] 



UGLAS FIR 

it Luinher Supply 



The creosoting of Douglas Fir 
is an industry that is groiving 
rapidljf. 




4 m" 




Strength values of Douglas Fir 
timbers may he applied in engi- 
neering calculations with entire 
confidence. 



try cm the H'est Coast a O «^r<^«. ^^•tt" 



rcialty of forest pictures 
pictures a cirnception of 
''■ H ith real ingenuity he 
d this composite picture 
>uglas Fir with ten-story 




Wide Douglas Fir planks ca 
readily be supplied for special 
purposes. 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 



r 





Liberty Pole in City Hall Park, 
\ew York City, erected in 
1766 to celebrate the Repeal of 
the Stamp Act, was aqnin 
erected in 1921, of Dovglas Fir, 
with a top-mast of White Pine. 



same reason is used to a considerable 
extent in the manufacture of barrels, 
tanks and wood stave pipe. Stains 
therefore penetrate the wood slowly, 
as in Oak, so that they may be evenly 
applied. 

Doufflas Fir is king; of 
structural timbers 

As a structural timber, Douglas Fir 
±\, is strong and dependable. In 
proportion to its dead weight Doug- 
las Fir is stronger than concrete, thus 
greatly reducing the load which the 
foundation of a structure must carry. 

Structural steel is much heavier 
than Douglas Fir in proportion to its 
load carrying capacity. Douglas Fir 
has thirty per cent greater tensile 
strength than steel per pound of 
weight, and unhke steel, is not sub- 
ject to crystallization, or fatigue. 

The tables on pages 21 and 22 pre- 
sent recommended working stresses 
for Douglas Fir as computed by the 
Forest Products Laboratory of the 
United States Forest Service, the 
paragraph numbers referring to the 
standard yard and railroad grading 
rules adopted January 1, 1926, by 
the W'est Coast Lumbermen's Asso- 
ciation. 

In material graded for density, in 
addition to the close grain required 
in the Structural Grades, stresses 10 
per cent greater than those given in 
the table for Structural Grades may 
be used, except in Modulus of Elas- 
ticitv. 



Pnpe Eighteen 



No. 1 Common Grades 

No. 1 common grades are based 
on general utility and appear- 
ance as well as on strength properties. 
They contain some provisions not re- 
quired in strictly structural grades, 
and do not fully conform to others, 
necessary of consideration when 
working stresses are to be assigned. 

The greater part of material grad- 
ed on Xo. 1 Common grades of West 
Coast Standard Yard and Railroad 
Grading Rules would, liowever, meet 
the requirements of the Common 
Structural grades of American Lum- 
ber Standards for Joist and Plank. 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 

It is more difficult to compare 
Timber grades with Beam and 
Stringer grades on account of the 
difference in the method of measur- 
ing knots. The majority of Xo. 1 
Common Timbers would, however, 
meet the recjuirements of the Com- 
mon Beam and Stringer grade of 
American Lumber Standards, al- 
though beams and stringers would 
ordinarily be required in a grade per- 
mitting higher working stresses. 

West Coast No. 1 Common Tim- 
bers have practically the same knot 
limitations as the Select Post and 
Timber grade of American Limiber 




When Secretary of the Navy Wilbur sent out 
an appeal urging patriotic Americans to as- 
sist in raising a fund to restore the Frigate 



Constitution, lumbermen of Washington and 
Oregon were called upon to furnish the masts 
and spars of Douglas Fir. 



Page Nineteen 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 



T 




If you would ask at Wathing- 
ton, D. C.f about the Pan- 
American Cnion Building you 
would he told that when it wat 
open to the public thousands of 
visitors inspected the Douglas 
Fir room every week and that 
it was a source of great delight 
to them. This main reception 
room, built seventeen years ago 
of Douglas Fir, grows in beau- 
ty as time passes. The wood is 
stained a dark, rich cherry 
which emphasizes the beauty of 
the satin figured pattern, a 
characteristic of Douglas Fir. 



Standards, and vMtli limitation on 
angle of grain and sliake could be 
used at only slightly lower work- 
ing stresses, the Select grade of 
American Lumber Standards re- 
quiring close grain. Close-grained 
Xo. 1 Common meeting the recjuire- 
nients of angle of grain and shake 
would be e(jui\ alent to the Structural 
grade. 

Technical data on the strength of 
Douglas Fir may seem to be of little 
interest to the home builder, but the 
fact that Douglas Fir combines such 
unusual strength and stiffness with 
durabilit>' is of vital importance. A 
home built of Douglas Fir is a home 
that will endure. Storms may da- 
mage any structure, but a well con- 
structed Douglas Fir building pro- 






P^t Twenty 



. Americfi\s Pcrnuuicnt Lumber Supply 



vidcs an additional factfjr of safety Douglas Fir is high, for as the tibres 

that cannot he lightly dismissed. are j)ushe(l aside by the penetrating 

The holding power of nails in point, the stiti* yet elastic wood closes 





STRUCTl RAL 


(,RADKS 




Coftfornihtfj hi .htn'rican I. 


umhrr Sfnnflards Basic Provisions far "Select". 


[ '«♦• and 


( ondit inn 

of l,\pnsurr 

( OntinuotisU 
Drv 


l.vtrtnif 
I'lhrc 


Maxinuiin ( oinpression 
Slie ar , Across Grain 


\fodulus of 
Elasticity 




Rounds per Square Inch 


Joist and Plank 


1 (]00 


„ 


350 


1,600,000 


R. U. (iradfs 
Par. I 'r-i 


Ocrasionallv 
Wit 

L'suaily W.t 


1250 
!>50 


90 
90 


•JiO 
215 


1 .tJOO.OOO 
1,600,000 


lirnni.s and 
StrintftTs 


Continuously 
Drv 


n;()0 


'K) 


350 


1 ,600,000 


Yard (iradfS 

Par, 2i>A 
R. R. (;rad«-.s 


Ofc-asionallv 

Wrt 
Usual IvVV.-t 


1 KH) 
1 100 


90 
90 


240 
215 


1.600,000 
1,600,000 


Par. /}7 




('oni[>rrsHion 
Alon^ (irain 










Cont inuousi V 
Drv 


riOO 




850 


1 .600,000 


Posts and Timhers 
R. R. (Jradfs 
Par. IS! 


Occasional Iv 
Usually Wet 


1100 
!K)0 




240 
215 


1,600,000 
1,600,000 




In building a floatrng span to carry cars J^rs^y made spUndid use of the great 

from transfer boats to the end of the strength and relatively light weight of 
trestle, the Central Railroad of Sew durable Douglas Fir. 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 



WORKING STRESSES FOR NO. 1 COMMON GRADES 

When Conforming to the Additional Requirements of the Common Structural Grade of 

American Lumber Standards. 



Use and 

Paragraph 



Joist and Plank 
Yard Grades 

Par. 194 
R. R. Grades 

Par. 142 

Beams and 
Stringers 
Yard Grades 

Par. 199 
R. R. Grades 

Par. 146 



Posts and Timbers 
Yard Grades 

Par. 199 
R. R. Grades 

Par. U9 



Condition 
of Exposure 



Continuously 

Dry 
Occasionally 

Wet 
Usually Wet 

Continuously 

Dry 
Occasionally 

Wet 
Usually Wet 



Continuously 

Dry 
Occasionally 

Wet 
Usually Wet 



Extreme 
Fibre 



Maximum Compression ! Modulus of 
Shear | Across Grain Elasticity 





Pounds per 


Square Inch 




1200 


72 


325 


1,600,000 


1000 
750 


72 
72 


225 
200 


i 1,600,000 
1,600,000 


1200 


72 


326 


1,600,000 


1000 
800 


72 
72 


225 
200 


1 ,600,000 
1,600,000 


Compression 
Along Grain 








1100 




326 


1,600,000 


1000 
850 




225 

200 


1,600.000 
1,600.000 



7'his 16- foot Douglas Fir pipe line built in 
connection with the California-Oregon Power 
Company's hydro-electric development in 
Northern California, is undoubtedly the larg- 
est wooden conduit ever built for any pur- 
pose. Unlike steel and concrete pipe, Doug- 
las Fir wood pipe retains its carrying cap- 
acity indefinitely. 




>ii 




Pape Twentv-two 



America s Pennanent Lumber Supply 




One of the Port Commission docks, Portland, 
Oregon. On many waterfronts of the Pa- 
cific ports are great wharves — the largest ever 
built, carried on creosoted Douglas Fir piling. 



A scientific study of dock structures in San 
Francisco hay, sponsored by the National Re- 
search Council, demonstrated the superiority 
of Douglas Fir over all other materials. 



on the nail with a vise-like grip. In 
exterior woodwork, nails are tenaci- 
ously retained even when the wood is 
subjected to alternate wetting and 
drying. High wind pressures on ex- 
posed porches therefore do compara- 
tively little damage. 

The stiffness of Douglas Fir 
sheathing provides strength that re- 
sists tremendous blasts. The vibra- 
tion that a storm develops in any type 
of structure may quickly loosen the 
nails in gypsum or fibre-board, but 
the nails will remain tight in Douglas 
Fir. Other materials of this charac- 
ter have little shock-resisting ability 
but, in the words of an engineer. 



Douglas Fir can be momentarily 
stressed far beyond its elastic limit 
without suffering permanent harm. 

The heat insulating' capacity 
oj Douglas Fir 

The dead air spaces in the cell cav- 
ities of Douglas Fir effectively 
retard the transmission of heat and 
sound. Each cubic inch contains 
from six to ten million of these cells. 
As an insulating medium it is twice 
as effective as asbestos or corkboard. 
It is 20 times as effective as concrete, 
and 1,500 times as effective as steel! 
A Douglas Fir home is truly warmer 
in winter and cooler in summer. 



Paqe Twenty-three 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR. 



Due to the extremely low rate of 
heat conductivity exhibited by Doug- 
las Fir, solid walls of this wood are 
often used as fireguards. This same 
characteristic is made use of in a 
practical manner in ''mill construc- 
tion," where large Douglas Fir tim- 
bers and heavy plank are used in 
erecting structures where the fire haz- 
ard must be very low, and the weight 
carrying capacity very high. Such 
buildings, when equipped with 
sprinkler systems, take a very low in- 
surance rate, and are very favorably 
regarded by the unsentimental fire 
insurance underwriters. Proper fire- 
stopping will make any Douglas Fir 
structure slow-burning. 

Still another comparison may be 
made between Douglas Fir and other 
common materials of construction. A 
third more heat is required to bring 



In place of the sled teams, the 
knock-down camp and the river 
drives of old, the Douglas Fir 
industry has steam and electric 
skidders, the logging town and 
a railroad system on almost 
every logging operation. 



Douglas Fir to a given temperature 
than concrete, and three times more 
than is required for iron! In an iron 
tank, water will freeze quickly. In a 
Douglas Fir tank ice is slow in form- 
ing. Ensilage in a concrete silo with 
walls many inches thick will freeze 
more quickly than in a durable Doug- 
las Fir silo with staves of nominal 
thickness. 

The following test to illustrate the 
relative heat conductivity of different 
materials can be made by anyone: 
Place the hand on a piece of iron at 
room temperature, or on a piece of 
stone or concrete, and note how cold 
it feels. The sensation of cold is due 
to the fact that heat is being conduct- 




Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 



TV est Coast lumbermen operate 
on the theory that the forests 
of the JVest Coast icill forever 
suppli^ the lumber icants of the 
countrif. Both mills and toicns 
are built for permanence. These 
pictures illustrate some of the 
modern lujuber cities of the 
JVest Coast forest reqion. 




The stabilitif of the Douglas 
Fir industry is insured by the 
rapid growth of the new for- 
ests after the old-growth tim- 
ber has been removed. 




7 he growing appreciation of 
the excellent qualities of Doug- 
las Fir has led to a great ex- 
pansion of wood using indus- 
tries, all contributing to the 
permanent success of forestru. 



All of the great cities of the 
Douglas Fir region were found- 
ed upan the lumber industry. 
Permanent industries build per- 
manent cities, and here the bus- 
iness of lumbering will con- 
tinue for all time to come. 




Piuje T-iJi'eut tf-five 



! 



DUEABLE DOUGLAS FIB 




- hand very rapidly. 

rs are hard to heat 

the reason irfir is ob- 

j is more comfort* 

> of weather than the 

_ i ^ nome. 

/ c season ing ofDfjuglas Fir 

' I ^bere is no step in the manufac- 
^ ture of hmiber that is of more 
importance than proper seasoning. 
Here the ease with which Dougks 
Fir can be qutddr and miiformly 
dried is of importance to every user 
of wood. Kih drying has been 
brought to a rery high state of per- 
fection in the Douglas Fir region. 



and lumber is dried in au* that is cir- 
culated by large fans while the prop- 
er temperature and humidity are 
maintained by automatic instru- 
ments. 

Douglas Fir is not subject to sap- 
staining, and it may therefore be 
dried slowly and carefully. For this 
reasoo. even air-seasooed yard stock 
is remarkably free from checking, as 
extra open piling to ensure quick sea- 
soning is unnecevsary. Drying con- 
ditions in the Douglas Fir region are 
never harsh and unfavorable. The 
hmiber storage yards are clean and 
sanitary, and sound, bright lumber is 
invariably produced. 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 




The wide, clear 
cants of Douglas 
Fir are re-cut into 
commercial sizes 
with the aid of 
extra heavy, true- 
running machinery 
built especially for 
Douglas Fir mills. 



The adaptability of Douglas 
Fir was strikingly illustrated 
at the Panama Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition, where it was 
used in the entire construction 
of the Oregon Building. Doug- 
las Fir trusses were fabricated 
on the ground and raised into 
position in the same manner in 
ivhich structural steel is ordi- 
narily employed. Here, too, 
Douglas Fir demonstrated its 
desirability in its delicate beau- 
ty as interior finisJi and trim. 



Douglas Fir braces 

twenty to forty feet 
in length supported 
the entire wall of 
the street in this 
forty - foot excava- 
tion. 




Page Tzcenty-tfeven 



k 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR.. 



■ '»^ 




The 5000 icindows of the 
7C(frId's largest hotel, the 
Stevens, under construc- 
tion in Chicago, will hare 
vertical grain Douglas Fir 
sash and frames. 







Thf Xorth Ameri- 
rnn BuUdinff, Chi- 
rdffO, huilt in J910. 
iV another example 
of the (lurnhilitif of 
Douglas Fir sa^h 
and frames. 




The First Xational 
Bank Building of 
Pittsburg, built in 
J 910, is a fine ex- 
ample of the dura- 
bilitg of vertical 
grain Douglas Fir 
.'<ash and frames. 



^ 1 1 mi 

ii rill II 

1 1 'I !■ II 

•'•nil III, 
JIi'! Jli 



11 



iiiin 
II II I! r 
n III I! I L 
II ill! I a 
fjiii'J 




^^m^-tihAm^ 



iJuuglas Fir dottrs are installed 
throughout this fine apartment 
house — thr J^arlvicic, Mem- 
phis, Tenn. 

The architect who built the 
New Detroit Theatre and Office 
Building ch(tse Doufilas Fir 
sash and frames for durability. 



Page Twenty-eight 



L 



The fact that Douglas Fir absorbs 
moisture slowly even when air dried is 
illustrated by the results of an exper- 
iment made by the United States 
Forest Products Laboratory. Air 
dry pieces of Douglas Fir, 4x4 inch- 
es in cross section and 4 feet long 
were not saturated even after four 
fnonths of complete immersion in 
water. Kiln drying still further re- 
duces the ''hygroscopicity," or the 
tendency of wood to absorb atmo- 
spheric moisture. 

Douglas Fir largely 
heartwood 

A large proportion of the lumbt 
cut from Douglas Fir is all-heart 
wood, for the logs reach large dimen- 
sions, and the ring of sap wood is 
comparatively narrow. Framing 
lumber is usually cut from the por- 
tion of the log that re- 
mains after the clear 



Americas Permanent Lumber Supply 

lumber has been removed and is there- 
fore usually entirely of durable heart 
wood. 

Douglas Fir produces wood suit- 
able for a great many uses, depend- 
ing upon the portion of the tree from 
which it is cut. In a large, old-growth 
tree the wood at the center is usually 
hard and tough, and suited for struc- 
tural timbers. Farther 
from the center the 
wood becomes more 
even in texture until in 
the outer portion of the 
log it is light yellow in 








This concretitKj toiccr, huilt for 
the a)n.\truction of the Ilrtch 
H etch if Dam, California, is 
constructed of Dtmglas Fir 
lumher. The tozcer as shoivn 
here is 170 feet in height and 
xcas to be increased as work 
progressed to S20 feet. 



Page Twenty -nine 



DURABLE DOUGLAS FIR 



/■ Jmpmm DamgUs 
Fir is wimck m fmvor 
ms m eomsirmciiom 
mtmUriml for there 
ike frequency of 
emrtkquakes de- 
wtmudt stromg frmm- 




color, fine-grained, soft atici suiUble 
for the manufacture of the finest 
grades of sa-* • ^ ^ - -s, finish and 
interior triii re, aiq>lanr 

wing-beams and similar exacting use 

Vellfm and red Douglas Fir are 

often produced by the same tree, and 

tJ ' ■ "^ ' in col« 

'" i "i"i -K^-riii-* to be a>- 

nlv m-ith the rate of 

> grown wood is red ; 

^ grown wood is yellow. Smaller 

- vellow or red thr 



which they have grown. Xo differ- 
ence in strength can be noted bet\' 
equivalent grades of red and yeii •>' 
DougUs Fir, and Uith arr «tiu:ill\ 
1 slant to dfy*!!^ 



The, 
ofl> 



^ Fir 



\ssociated with Douglas Fir m the 
^^ forests of the Pacific Northwest 
are tbree of America's finest special- 
purpose woods. Western Red Cedar. 
West Coast Henikick, and Sitka 



1 

I 



ng up*^ 



«k^ 



J 





Tkt durul 

eamwkewds 

mil fmrm ttr^*:, 

mdmpishlr mnd 

emmt of tU Imt 

kemrfmood, tt 

wrmfktrmj^ 



^mf^Thirtf 



^. 



. . . America's Permanent Lumber Supply 




Durituj fUlifl linuijldH Fir wfut tn fifrif 
important lumher vonxuminrf cnuntrif tn 
the ivarld. This map ahnjvn thf amount 
t\rpor{r<i in mitlinns of hoard fft't. I'hf 

IVe stern Red Cechtr 

WvsXvvw \\vi\ C'edar, tlu' ^iaiit 
arhorv itao, is the largest and 
\\\v finest (»f the cedars. The strong 
hut soft and everdy textured aro- 
niatie wood is rernarkahly durahle. 
even when phiced in eontaet witli the 
soil. Entirely free from pitch it 
takes and holds [)aint rernarkahly 
well. As hevel sidinof it is used in fin- 
ish ir>^ the finest homes. Second in 
size only to Douglas Fir, the giant 
logs yield wide clear lumher that 
shows almost uo U'fi<l»»»r\' f.» i-Ium'I •>»• 
warp. 



>i<tlul hlack m IA# cireiti indieaUt pet*- 

t'fnt of total ithipmfntf that ivat Imfnher 
and thf ahadfd portion, hexvrd and 
Hnicfd fimf>fr» and lotji. 

Western Red Cedar can l>e safely 
usr<l for the most critical wf>rk. For 
the manufacture of shingles, no other 
wood offers e(]ual advantages. Kdge- 
grain Western Red C'etlar shingles 
do not curl and twist, and when 
nailed with copper or zinc-<dad nails 
are guaranteed hy the manufactur- 
ers to last from forty to fifty years. 
They take and hold stains without 
discoloring the finest tints. For poles 
and p<^sts, again no other wo4hI offers 
eijual advantages, and tremendous 
(uantities are usetl for this purpose. 

Fmif0 Tkiftjf-cms 



West Coast Hemlock 

West Coast Hemlock, which often 
reaches a height of 160 feet 
and a diameter of five feet, produces 
wood of unusually fine quality. It 
is especially suitable for the finest 
grades of flooring. a,s under the most 
extreme wear it shows no tendency to 
sliver. Many mills are now produc- 
ing West Coast Hemlock flooring, 
finished according to the standards 
used in manufacturing hardwood. 
This is one of the few woods that 
does not darken with age. and a floor 
of West Coast Hemlock will remain 
bright and smooth for an indefinite 
period. Exceedingly strong in pro- 
portion to its weight, West Coast 
Hemlock is extensively used as a 
framing material. For boxes, light 
weight and great strength have 
placed this wood in the lead, and in 
the manufacture of sulphite paper 
pulp. West Coast Hemlock ranks 
with the finest grades of spruce. 



Sitka Spruce 

Sitka Spruce, like its associates, is 
a large forest tree, sometimes 
reaching a height of 180 feet and a 
diameter of twelve feet. The wood is 
ver^' uniform in quaht>', possessing 
great toughness and strength. On 
account of this uniformity it is espe- 
cially valuable for sounding boards 
in fine musical instruments, such as 
violins and pianos. As an airplane 
timber it is unsurpassed, and during 
the world war a special regiment, 
known as the Spruce Production Di- 
vision, was organized especially to log 
this valuable wood. For bevel siding, 
boxes, interior trim that is to l)e 
enameled, and as shop lumber. Sitka 
Spruce is unsurpassed. As a pulp- 
wood it is used in the production of 
the finest grades of paper. The finest 
grades of spruce are found near the 
coast in Washington and Oregon, 
where it grows even more rapidly 
than Douglas Fir. 



r iff J 1 ^ iM VEST COAST LUMKt Tl AOE EXTENSKM KWEAU 



Pa^e Thirty-tw 



Tliese lunil>^r n 



Kil 



WmH. Mo 4 

1- 

Mu. 



Or«. 



W««h 



Wm< 



WmJ 



w*. 





'• «. ^ . r. . .<-■.«...« 






W«alOT««wi L»w>ir • 






W<niCv>«rt I.«n^«r Go 






-rwmf LwB^ 






titii 






*•*>,-.;-* *-• r.— Si* 




WuiL 


WW^lT 




WmIi 


T«« lu 








•. «■* 


A *>•> 




r'-iTUai--^ 


Or*- 


Wflli*-^ 1. .p Kin*l» ( •. 




WMh, 


-■' 


UmOm, 


Wmmh 


^* 




u. c 


Wo»0 A ..•r»oi» l«*: 


mab^rt. 



\^ 



^^ 



'Mrs 

<l a 
! be wciod is 

ri^m. Oil 

l\ Is «-MM- 



I 



tiiii (iurifiK 
.nt. 
I)i 

i' liimtier, Sitka 

.1,.- 

1 1 1 « M 1 1 i( 1 1« 1(1 in 
• n I . 'I'Im finrst 

>reirc)n. 



€^ 



These lumber manufacturers 

are members of the 

West Coast Lumber Trade Extension Bureau 



Anderson & Middleton Lbr. Co. 
Bay City Lumber Co. 

Beaver Lumber Co. 

1004 Pacific Building 

Bellpak Lumber & Timber Co. 

Booth-Kelly Lumber Co. 

Brown, O. W., Loco. & Supply Co. 

532 Lumber Exchange Bldg. 
Buchanan Lumber Co. 
Canyon Lumber Co. 
Carlisle Lumber Co. 
Cascade Timber Co. 
Central Coal & Coke Co. 

Keith & Perry Building 
Chehalis Mill Co. 
Cherry Valley Logging Co. 
Christenson Logging Company 

362 Pittock Block 
Cispus Logging Co. 
Clark-Nickerson Lumber Co. 
Clear Fir Lumber Co. 
Clemons Logging Co. 
Clough Lumber Co. 
Coats, A. F., Lumber Co. 
Cobbs & Mitchell Co. 

Northwestern Bank Building 
Colby Lumber Co., Inc. 

White-Henry-Stewart Bldg. 
Crossett Western Co. 
Dempsey Lumber Co. 
Dick man Lumber Co. 
Ernest Dolge, Inc., Box 974, 
Doty Lbr. & Shgl. Co. 

Gasco Building 
Eagle Lumber Co. 
Emery & Nelson, Inc. 
Fischer Lumber Co. 
Flanigan, Walter, Lumber Co. 
FoBter-Newb«>gin Lumber Co. 

Globe Lumber Co. 

Green Mountain Logging Co. 

Hama Kama Logging Co. 
503 Marion Building 

Henry Mill & Timber Co. 

Irving-Hartley Logging Co. 

Knappton Mills & Lumber Co. 
Pittock Block 

K-P Timber Company 

Lincoln Creek Lumber Co. 

Long-Bell Lumber Co. 

Luedinghaus Lumber Co. 
633-8 Pacific Building 

Mason County Logging Co. 

Maughlin Lumber Co. 

Merrill & Ring Lbr. Co., 
White Building 

Geo. T. Mickle Lbr. Co. 

Miller, E. C, Cedar Lbr. Co. 

Mineral Lake Logging Co. 

Mohawk Lumber Co., Ltd. 



Aberdeen, 


Wash. 


Aberdeen, 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Van Zandt. 


Wash. 


Eugene, 


Ore. 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


Olympia, 


Wash. 


Everett. 


Wash. 


Onalaska, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Kansas City, 


Mo. 


Salkum, 


Wash. 


Everett, 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Everett. 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Stanwood, 


Wash. 


Tillamook, 


Ore. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Seattle. 


Wash. 


Wauna, 


Ore. 


Tacoma. 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Tacoma. 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Westimber, 


Ore. 


Napavine, 


Wash. 


Marcola. 


Ore, 


Acme, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Globe, 


Wash. 


Kerry, 


Ore, 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Twin, 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Kerry. 


Ore, 


Centralia, 


Wash. 


Longview, 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Bordeaux, 


Wash. 


Snohomish, 


Wash. 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


North Portland. 


Ore. 


Aberdeen, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


New Westminster, B. C. 



Monroe Logging Co. 

R. F. D. No. 4 
Mud Bay Logging Co. 
Mumby Lumber & Shingle Co. 
Murphy Timber Co. 
Mutual Lumber Co. 
Nehalem Timber & Logging Co., 

1004 Pacific Building 
Nettleton Lumber Co. 

4th & Seneca, 
North Bend Timber Co. 
North End Lumber Co. 
Olympia Harbor Lumber Co. 
Oregon-American Lumber Co. 
Ostrandc-r Ry. & Timber Co. 
Owen-Oregon Lumber Co. 
Pacific Spruce Corporation 

Northwestern Bank Building 
Pacific States Lumber Co. 
Peninsula Lbr. Co., Drawer 4198, 
Phoenix Logging Co. 

White Building 
Reed Mill Company 
Ridgefield Lumber Co. 
Robine^on Mfg. Co. 
Sauk River Lbr. Co. 

201 First Nat'l. Bk. Bldg. 
Seattle Mil! & Logging Co. 

10002 Rainier Avenue 
Shafer-McLaughlin & Hillier, Ir 

Kenton Station 
Silver Falls Timber Co. 
Simpson Logging Co. 
Skagit Mill Co. 
Snoqualmie Falls Lumber Co. 
Sound Timber Co. 

946 Henry Building 
Springer Mill Co. 
Stimson Timber Co. 

700 Westlake North 
St. Paul & Tacoma Lbr. Co. 
Straits Lumber Co. 
Sunset Timber Co. 
Wallace Falls Timber Co. 
Wallace Lumber & Mfg. Co. 
Walton Lumber Co. 
Walville Lumber Co. 
West Fork Logging Co. 
West Oregon Lumber Co. 
Westport Lumber Co. 
West Waterway Lumber Co. 

P. O. Box 3205 
Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. 
Wheeler, C. H. 

Yeon Building 
Wheeler-Osgood Co. 
Willapa Lbr. Co., Gasco Bldg.. 
Williams Fir Finish Co, 

600 Myrtle Street 
Wood, E. K., Lumber Co. 
Wood & Iverson. Inc. 



Snohomish, 


Wash. 


Olympia. 


Wash. 


Bordeaux. 


Wash. 


Yacolt, 


Wash. 


Bucoda, 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


Morth Bend, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Olympia, 


Wash. 


Vernonia, 


Ore. 


Ostrander, 


Wash. 


Medford, 


Ore. 


Portland. 


Ore. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Seattle. 


Wash. 


Shelton. 


Wash. 


Ridgefield. 


Wash. 


Everett, 


Wash. 



Everett, 
Seattle. 



Wash, 

Wash. 



Portland. 


Ore. 


Silverton. 


Ore. 


Shelton, 


Wash. 


Lyman, 


Wash. 


Snoqualmie Falls. 


Wash. 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


Olympia, 


Wash. 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


Tacoma, 


Wash. 


Red Gap, 


B.C. 


Raymond, 


Wash. 


Gold Bar. 


Wash. 


Sultan. 


Wash. 


Everett, 


Wash. 


Walville, 


Wash. 


Tacoma. 


Wash. 


Linnton, 


Ore. 


Westport, 


Ore, 


Seattle, 


Wash. 


Everett, 


Wash. 


Portland. 


Ore. 


Tacoma, 


Wash, 


Portland, 


Ore. 


Seattle, 


Wash- 


Bellingham, 


Waah. 


Hobart, 


Wash.